Vanwege de coronamaatregelen kan de onderwijsvorm of tentaminering afwijken. Zie voor actuele informatie de betreffende cursuspagina’s op Brightspace.


nl en


For information on courses and requirements of each specialisation, please follow the links below. Please note that these are based on the Education and Examination Regulations for 2021-2022.

The Master Physics programme consists of the specialisations mentioned below.
A more detailed overview of the programme structure of each specialisation can be found in the appendices of the Course and Examination Regulations of the Physics Master programme
For information on courses and requirements of each specialisation, please follow the links below:

Research Specialisations

Biological and Soft Matter Physics

Casimir pre-PhD

Classical/Quantum information


Quantum Matter and Optics

Theoretical Physics

Interdisciplinary Specialisations

Physics and Education

Physics and Business Studies

Physics and Science Communication and Society

For questions contact the Study Advisor Physics, Hara Papathanassiou

First semester courses 2021-2022

Vak EC Semester 1 Semester 2
Advanced Optics 6
Advanced Topics in Theoretical Physics I 6
Biophysics 6
Complex Networks (BM) 6
Condensed Matter Physics 6
Econophysics 6
Effective Field Theory 3
Frontiers of Measurement Techniques 3
Origin and Structure of the Standard Model 3
Quantum Information 3
Quantum Theory 6
Soft and Biomatter Theory 6
Statistical Physics a 6
Statistical Physics b 3
Theory of General Relativity 6

Inter-faculty Electives

Computational Chemistry and Molecular Simulations (CCMS) 6
Density Functional Theory in Practice (DIP) 6
Science Methodology (SCM) 4
Surface Science (SUS) 6

Second semester courses 2021-2022

Vak EC Semester 1 Semester 2
Academic and Professional Skills (Science) 3
Advanced Topics in Theoretical Physics II 6
Applied Quantum Algorithms 6
Black Holes and Gravitational Waves 3
Computational Physics (3 EC) 3
Computational Physics (6 EC) 6
Mechanical Metamaterials 6
Molecular Electronics (in collaboration with Delft) 6
Particle Physics and Early Universe 3
Physics and Classical / Quantum Information 6
Quantum Field Theory 6
Quantum Optics 6
Single Molecule Optics 6
Theory of Condensed Matter 6
Topics in Theoretical Physics: 6

MSc Research Projects

Admission requirements
Depending on their specialization, students do one of two MSc research projects in their second study year. Students can only start their research project when they are on track, i.e., when they have acquired close to 60 ECs of their MSc Physics program. In exceptional cases, student can also start a project after half a year of study. Master's Research Project can only be started in consultation with the study advisor.

The Master's Research Project is an integral and vital part of your training as an Physics master's student at Leiden University. During a period of typically 4-9 months, you engage in state-of-the-art research at LION, the Physics Institute of Leiden University. You will be supervised by a scientific staff member and hosted in a research group, where you will participate in new or ongoing research, regular group meetings, seminars, and other activities. Each Master's Research Project is concluded with a Master's Thesis and a Student Colloquium.

Each project must be approved by the study advisor beforehand, to check among others that it fulfills the following requirements (which differ per MSc Physics specialization):

MSc Biological and soft matter physics: (2 projects: 24 EC & 36 EC) or MSc Quantum Matter and Optics (2 projects: 24 EC & 36 EC):

  • One of the two projects must be done at LION; the second project is generally also done at LION but can be at a research institute outside LION, provided that it offers research at an academic level and is monitored by a LION staff member as second supervisor.

  • The two projects must have different supervisors;

  • The 36 EC project must be a fully experimental project;

  • The 24 EC project can be either experimental or theoretical, but if so it must have a tangible connection to experiment. This means either (a) partly (>15%) experimental, (b) modelling/design of an experiment, or (c) performed as part of a team where data is generated and analysed interactively.

  • Data analysis or theoretical physics may be part of the project, but the essence/main goal must be BSM or QMO physics.

MSc Theoretical Physics (1 project: 48EC)

  • The project must take place at LION

  • The project can be either fully theoretical or theoretical/experimental, but if so it must be for the major -part (>70%) theoretical.

  • Data analysis may be part of the project, but the essence/main goal must be physics

MSc Cosmology (2 projects: 30 EC & 30 EC)

  • Both projects must be in Cosmology

  • The combination of the two projects must cover three aspects: theory, numerical modelling and data analysis;

  • The two projects have different supervisors and one project must be done at LION.

  • Occasionally the two projects can be combined into one with one supervisor, with special permission from the Cosmology coordinator (Ana Achucarro), provided it is supervised at LION;

MSc Casimir Pre Phd (2 study projects 8 EC; 1 research project 36EC):

  • The projects must always be pre-approved by the Casimir coordinator (Luca Giomi).

  • The 2 study projects must have different supervisors.

  • One of the 2 study projects must be experimental, the other must be theoretical or mixed theoretical-experimental

  • The 36 EC research project can be either experimental or theoretical or mixed theoretical-experimental.

  • The 8 EC study projects in the Casimir pre-PhD specialization receive one combined grade for the research and presentation (oral or written or both).

  • Occasionally a theoretical research project can be a continuation of the theoretical study project and combined into one 44 EC research project, with special permission from the Casimir coordinator (Luca Giomi).

  • Data analysis may be part of the project, but the essence/main goal must be physics.

MSc Science Based Business, MSc in Physics and Education or MSc Science Communication and Society (1 physics project, 1 internship):

  • The physics project must be done at LION;

  • The project can be either experimental or theoretical;

  • Data analysis may be part of the project, but the essence/main goal must be physics.

Course objectives

The goal of the Master Research Project is to learn to conduct scientific research independently. At its core this involves exploring and analyzing a physics-related problem experimentally, theoretically or both, following the principles of scientific research: comprehension of previous results, hypothesizing consequences and testing these to verify. A crucial intrinsic part of research is reporting the results and presenting the conclusions.

This means that after this project you will be able to:

  • Perform independent and accurate research, according to methodological and scientific standards

  • Interpret the results in an objective way, linking your research question to a scientific conclusion

  • Analyze the outcomes of your research compared to directly related scientific results

  • Indicate the relevance of your research in the larger scientific context

  • Critically reflect on your own research work

  • Comprehensibly report your research results in writing

  • Present your research results orally in a public presentation

Soft skills
The Master Research Project also strengthens the development of a number of behaviour-oriented skills. After the project, you will be able to:

  • Collaborate within a research group, contributing to its scientific momentum

  • Plan your research activities realistically and deliver expected products before deadlines

  • Work with a high degree of autonomy, even accepting responsibility in (project) planning and management.

  • Professionally respond to feedback and incorporate the feedback into the research by adapting your practices.

  • Listen carefully and present difficult ideas and complex information in a clear and concise manner to a professional as well as to lay audiences.

Furthermore, the research project will stimulate your independent thinking and your ability to search for creative and original solutions and thereby enhance your auto-didactic abilities.

Assessment method
The EC-weight of the associated grading depends on your specialization:

  • Theoretical Physics: 1 x 48 EC project

  • QMO or BSM: 24 EC project + 36 EC project

  • Cosmology: 2 x 30 EC project

  • Casimir pre-PhD: 1 x 36 EC project (+ several smaller projects)

  • SBB/SCS/EDU: 1 x 36 EC project

The grading of the 48 EC theory project is divided as: 36 EC research + 8 EC thesis + 4 EC presentation. The grading of the other research projects are divided as 36=30+4+2, 30=25+4+1 and 24=20+3+1 (see OER).

Practical information

  • Relevant information on procedures and forms for the registration, assessment etc.can be found on the master's research projects page on the Physics student's website

  • For general questions or in case of problems during your research that you would prefer to discuss confidentially, contact our Physics study advisor Hara Papathanasiou located in room 201 of the Huygens building.

Course Level

Level indication

The level of an individual course is indicated with a number ranging from 100 to 600 as follows:

  • Level 100 Introductory course; no course prerequisites Intensive supervision, textbooks in Dutch, guided work groups, etc Mostly first year courses, some second year (bachelor’s)

  • Level 200 Introductory course; no specific course prerequisistes Independent study techniques required, books in English may be used Mostly second year courses, some first year (bachelor’s)

  • Level 300 Course for advanced students; course prerequisites at level 100 or 200 Books in various languages (only if relevant) Examinations test the student’s skills in applying acquired knowledge and insights into new problems

  • Level 400 Specialised course; course prerequisites at level 200 or 300 Books mostly in languages other than Dutch; extensive use of scientific articles Examination may include a small research project, an oral report, or written papers Third year bachelor’s or first year master’s course

  • Level 500 Master course: scientifically oriented course Course prerequisites at level 300/400 Scientific advanced specialist/professional literature

  • Level 600 Master course: very advanced scientific course with as prerequisite a level 400/500 course Latest developments in scientific field Examination consists of a contribution to an unsolved problem, with an oral presentation

Career Orientation

During the Master Physics we want to provide you with the best possible preparation for the job market. In addition to knowledge, it is important that you develop skills, gain practical experience, orientate on positions & careers, and reflect on your own profile and development. In addition to substantive knowledge, it is also important to be aware of the so-called transferable skills that you develop outside and during your education. These are, for example, your cognitive skills such as critical thinking and communication. Altogether, this contributes to your development as a professional and offers good preparation for the labour market.

The programme offers a solid background and a thorough experience at the forefront of physics research in the respective specialisation, including practical training in communication and computational skills. The programme aims at training students as independent researchers and provides them with the necessary skills to advance their career. Upon completion of the degree, the MSc graduate will be well equipped to start a PhD, work in research and development, or in other branches of the public and private sector that require strong analytical, computational, and problem-solving skills.

At various times during your studies, questions about this subject may arise, such as: How can you use the knowledge and skills you gain within and outside your study program in the labor market? Which direction do you choose within your study and why? What are you already able to do, and what skills do you still want to learn? How do you translate the courses you choose into something you would like to do later?

You may have already discussed this with the study advisor, mentor, tutor, the Science Career Service, fellow students or made use of the Leiden University Career Zone. All kinds of activities are organized where you get the chance to orientate yourself on the job market and gives opportunities to reflect on your own development, possibilities and (study) career profile as well. Central to this are the questions: "What are my capabilities?", "What do I want?" and "How do I achieve my goals?".

In the prospectus, learning objectives have been formulated for each subject, the purpose of which is to inform you which components are covered in the development of your (study) career profile and preparation for the labour market. Various activities are also organized that help you in making all kinds of career choices and to develop skills. An overview of activities is shown below.


  • As part of the Course Academic and Professional Skills APS
    o Lectures by and discussion with alumni about their career development
    o Group work on a project that relates to physics education
    o Networking
    o Reflection on writing one's CV
    o Reflection on job interview preparation
    o Insights into teamwork (roles, rules, personal and interpersonal skills)

  • Multisession workshop “Applying for a job”

  • Meetings with Study Advisor

  • Series of colloquia by visiting scholars

  • Physics Science Day

  • Mentoring or Tutoring

  • Individual contact with Alumni as needed

  • Science Career Event

  • BètaBanenmarkt

  • Subject-specific conferences Physics@Veldhoven, Fysica, Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie

  • Research project
    o Skills that are actual and linked to current research questions
    o Independence
    o Group work
    o Presentation skills
    o Networking

  • Company internship

  • Research Project abroad

  • Opportunities to work as a Teaching Assistant and as a tutor for 1st year BSc students

  • Workshops and Career Events Science Career Service

Science Career Service

Science Career Service, one of the utilities of the Science faculty, offers information and advice on study (re)orientation, career planning and personal professional profile as well as preparation for the job market, such as job applications. Facilities provided to students include online information, walk-in consultations, workshops and individual counselling sessions. In addition, Science Career Service offers expertise and support to programmes that want to strengthen the connection between their curriculum and the job market. This can vary from providing specific guest lectures/workshops to advising on integrating career orientation programmes into the curriculum.

LU Career Zone

The Leiden University Career Zone is the website for students and alumni of Leiden University to support their (study) career planning. You will find advice, information, video recordings of webinars and tools such as professional tests to get an idea of your personal profile. You can also explore positions and sectors, you will find tips about CV, job application, LinkedIn and there is a vacancy platform that you can make use of.


Leiden University likes to prepare students and young alumni well for the job market. For this we use the knowledge and experience of Leiden alumni. To bring students and young alumni with questions about their careers into contact with experienced alumni, Leiden University has established the Mentornetwerk. Students and young alumni can register for free.


Do you have questions about your (study) career choices and has the above information not been able to help you further? Please contact the study advisor via .