Critical Heritage Studies
MA specialisation Critical Heritage Studies of Asia and Europe
Part of MA Asian Studies track History, Arts and Culture
‘There is, really, no such thing as heritage’, states Laurajane Smith in her acclaimed book The Uses of Heritage (2006). According to her, heritage is an ‘inherently political and discordant’ practice used by different interest-groups with varying degrees of legitimacy. The MA specialisation Critical Heritage Studies of Asia and Europe will focus in particular on the politics of heritage and the questions of its legitimacy. Who controls heritage? What is the role of heritage in the constructed narratives of nationalism? How is heritage being used as a cultural practice to shape the discourses on nation-building and nation-branding?
The process of heritage-making thus entails various forms of conflict over the definition, ownership, and use of cultural attributes. Originally a concept coined by the nation-state, heritage has become the object of intellectual reclamation by academics, activists and associations. Institutional and non-institutional social actors in Asia and in Europe are increasingly involved in debating the legitimacy as well as the need to “safeguard” different expressions of heritage. Furthermore, heritage is being used as a marketable commodity for the sake of tourism.
Students enrolled in this specialisation will examine, among others, key issues, concepts, and international frameworks related to the disputed distinction between tangible and intangible heritage. The courses will also explore the genesis and working practices of international heritage administration, charters and conventions. Students will gain insight into the rights and responsibilities of organisations such as ICCROM, ICOMOS and UNESCO. Furthermore, the social impact of heritage themes such as diaspora, ethnicity, and nationalism will be analysed. Current critiques of the heritage concepts of “authenticity” and “sustainability” will be provided. The courses within this specialisation will also elaborate on the notions of “collective” and “social” memory. In this context, special attention will be paid to the museum as a facilitating actor in the process of understanding and showcasing cultural identity. Students will review case studies of tangible and intangible heritage from Europe and Asia to see how heritage has taken on new and sometimes unintended meanings in the midst of social change, asserting religious identity and political upheaval. Students will be further encouraged to produce their own case studies and approach heritage as a growing interdisciplinary field. The course work will prepare them for careers as researchers, policy-makers, activists and practitioners.
The MA specialisation Critical Heritage Studies of Asia and Europe consists of compulsory and elective courses. Besides the general compulsory courses for the MA Asian Studies track History, Arts and Culture, the specialisation offers two compulsory heritage courses – “Critical Approaches to Heritage Studies” at the Faculty of Humanities, and “Heritage Protection in a Global Context: Institutional Practices and Polices” at the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences. Elective courses are offered at the Faculty of Humanities and at the Faculty of Archaeology.
The specialisation Critical Heritage Studies of Asia and Europe, jointly initiated by the International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) and the Leiden University Institute for Area Studies (LIAS), considers Asia as a fertile source of both theoretical and methodological insights in this highly contested arena.
Since colonial times, European-based concepts and technical approaches to conservation have dominated the understanding of heritage in Asia, in most cases through top-down imposition of ideas and processes. It is this hegemonic discourse, usually promoted by developmentalist states in Asia and elsewhere, as well as various processes of indigenous response, that the specialisation is intended to highlight.
Double Degree Programme
The specialisation Critical Heritage Studies of Asia and Europe forms part of a wider ambition to decentralise the production of knowledge and social agency by establishing a network of partner universities located in Asia and Europe. The contributing institutions have already established a fruitful collaboration in research and teaching. In this context, the study of heritage is re-configured as a means of reconceptualising relations between Asia and Europe in terms of mutual respect and exchange, and the creative exploration of cultural forms and practices.
Within this wider ambition, apart from the MA degree from Leiden University (within the one-year MA Asian Studies Programme), students can also engage in a Double Degree Programme, offered by Leiden University, the IIAS and one of the Asian partner universities, including National Taiwan University and Yonsei University, Korea. In order to attend courses at the National Taiwan University, which are partially given in English and Chinese, students are required to have HSK Level 4 in Chinese. All courses at the Yonsei University are given in English. Future collaboration possibilities will include Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. As far as certification in the Double Degree Programme is concerned, upon successful completion students will obtain three diplomas in total: the Leiden University MA diploma, the partner university MA diploma (two-year programme, of which the Leiden MA qualifies as one year) and a separate certificate for the Double MA Degree in Critical Heritage Studies of Asia and Europe, issued by IIAS. This specialisation prepares students to work in the following areas: academic research, planning, museum management, tourism industries, and heritage conservation.
For more information, please contact Dr. Elena Paskaleva at: email@example.com
1-year Master Asian Studies
In the one-year Master’s program in Asian Studies you will be able to deepen and broaden your knowledge of Asia as a whole or one of the regions within Asia. The different specialisations offered within this program cater for students both with and without prior proficiency in one or more Asian languages. In Asian Studies, you may focus on a specific region, choosing between China, Japan, Korea, South Asia or Southeast Asia. Alternatively, you may opt for an interregional, disciplinary emphasis, focusing on History, Arts, and Culture topics in the HAC specialisation, or on issues in Politics, Society and Economy in the PSE specialisation. The MA also has a special track Critical Heritage Studies as part of its History, Arts and Culture specialisation. The rich collections of the University Libraries in Asian Studies incorporate both the long textual tradition of Leiden University and the most up-to-date theories and approaches of history, literature, linguistics and the social sciences. Museums and other long-standing institutions in Leiden related to Asia provide much material for study. The one-year Master Asian Studies specifically encourages in-situ internships as part of the curriculum.
The master’s program in the one-year Asian Studies Master is divided into two semesters (each subdivided into two periods for some courses). Each semester consists of 30 EC. Students starting in September follow two compulsory courses in the fall (first) semester: Introduction to Asian Studies ( period I), and the Thesis & Methods Class (period II). Each counts for 5 EC, 10 EC in total.
In addition to these common courses, students take one or two courses that are specific to their specialisation – Core Electives. Students are permitted to choose one of the electives outside their own specialisation but within the Asian Studies Master to a maximum of 10 EC . In the spring (second) semester students take one or two Core Electives for a minimum of 15 EC, or fulfill this partially by an internship, and write their MA-Thesis (15 EC). Students of HAC and PSE tracks have a new compulsory Methods course in the spring ( their second) semester. Other MAAS students can take this as an Elective.
For students who start in February, the Spring Semester the programme has slightly been adapted. They take their Thesis and Methods Class (5 EC) in their first (spring) semester and the Introduction to Asian Studies (5 EC) together with the other students in their second (the fall) semester, and also write their MA-thesis (15 EC) in the fall semester. In the spring semester they take 25 EC Core Courses and Electives and one 10 EC Core Course in the fall semester. Students of East Asia tracks can only start advanced language courses in their second (fall) semester.
For students outside the East Asia tracks, a maximum of beginner’s language course credits can be applied toward degree requirements. MA East Asia Students can only count the Advanced Language credits that are a compulsory part of their program (15 EC) toward graduation.
Master’s thesis and requirements for graduation
In order to graduate, students must have successfully completed the 60 EC programme, including the MA thesis. The thesis is 15 EC, written in English and up to 15,000 words in length, including footnotes and bibliography. More details on the procedures regarding the MA-Thesis can be found in the course description.
The 1-year MA programme in Asian Studies offers the following specialisations:
History Arts and Culture , with an option Critical Heritage Studies
Politics, Society and Economy
East Asian Studies , subdivided into Japan, China and Korea tracks
South Asian Studies
Southeast Asian Studies