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Anthropology of Muslim Societies


Admission requirements

Admission to the MA Middle Eastern Studies, to the MA Middle Eastern Studies (research) or another relevant MA. Students should have had approximately 30 EC worth of courses in Islamic studies at BA level. Students who are interested in taking this course, but who do not fulfill these requirements are requested to contact Prof. dr. L.P.H.M. Buskens or the student advisor.


Since more than four decades cultural/social anthropologists are engaged in the study of Muslim societies. Anthropological perspectives have become increasingly prominent in studies of the Muslim world. According to Edward Said, they might serve as an antidote against essentialist and static views of older “orientalist” approaches. This seminar aims to give an overview of anthropological studies of Muslim societies, both contemporary and historical. This means that also books of historians who use an anthropological perspective might be subject of analysis. Starting point is the seminal essay by Clifford Geertz, “Islam Observed” (1968). Following this lead, the comparative study of Muslim societies is understood to be central. The first meetings are dedicated to a general introduction to anthropology, its theories, concepts and methods. Special attention will be given to combination of the study of written sources with fieldwork. The different styles of report and writing ethnographies will also be analyzed.

The anthropological approach itself is also subject to scrutiny, by placing it in its social and historical context, in which the colonial past looms large. The second part of the seminar is focused on a systematic comparison of several regional traditions in which anthropological approaches have taken place. Through the comparison of monographs from those regions (for instance the Arab World, Central Asia, the South Asian subcontinent, South East Asia and/or Sub-Saharan Africa) on related issues, such as religion, social structure, urban culture, gender, politics and the public sphere, pilgrimage and sacrifice, important themes in anthropology will be addressed.

Course objectives

  • A sound overview of important anthropological studies of Muslim societies and its main issues.

  • An introduction to anthropological theories and methods relevant for the subject.

  • A critical reflection on the history of the anthropological approach to Muslim societies by analyzing its social context.



Mode of instruction

  • Seminar

Attendance and participation are obligatory. Classes missed for a good reason (to the discretion of the conveners and to be discussed BEFORE the class takes place) will have to be made up with an extra assignment. Being absent without notification can result in a lower grade or exclusion from the term end paper and a failing grade for the course.

Course Load

Total course load for the course for 10 EC, 280 hours:

  • Hours spent on attending lectures and seminars: 3 hours per week x 12 weeks = 36 hours

  • Time for studying the compulsory literature: 100 hours

  • Time for assignments (presentation and participation): 44 hours

  • Time to write a paper (including reading / research) : 100 hours

Assessment method

The final mark is composed of

  • 25% for participation

  • 25% for presentation

  • 50% final paper.

The final paper is written in two stages: a first version which will be commented on and a final version. Students who do not meet the deadline for the first version will lose the right to get comments and will only be graded based on their final version.

In order to pass the course, students must obtain an overall mark of 5.50 (=6) or higher. A new version of the final assignment may be written if the overall mark for the course is “5.49” (=5) or lower. If students take this option, they must choose an alternative topic. They will not be permitted to resubmit the same paper. The deadline for this version will be determined in consultation.

The course is an integrated whole. All assessment parts must be completed in the same academic year. No partial marks can be carried over into following years.



Reading list

  • Geertz, Clifford; 1968 Islam Observed. Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia, New Haven & London: Yale University Press

  • Monaghan, John & Just, Peter; 2000 Social and Cultural Anthropology. A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press

  • Rabinow, Paul; 2007 (orig. 1977) Reflections on Fieldwork in Morocco, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press Thirtieth Anniversary Edition with a new preface by the author

  • Varisco, Daniel; 2005_ Islam Obscured. The Rhetoric of Anthropological Representation,_ New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Some additional readings. A definitive reading list will be made available at the beginning of the course


Students of the MA program Middle Eastern Studies are required to register through uSis before August/January 15. To avoid mistakes and problems, students are strongly advised to register in uSis through the activity number which can be found in the timetable in the column under the heading “Act.nbr.”.

Other students are requested to send an email to the study co-ordinator including their name, student ID number, course title and prospectus or catalog number. Depending on the availability of places, the study co-ordinator will register these students after August/January 15. By September/February 1 at the latest the student will be able to see in uSis whether (s)he is registered or not.

Not being registered, means no permission to attend this course. See also the ‘Registration procedures for classes and examinations’ for registration deadlines and more information on how to register.

Registration Studeren à la carte and Contractonderwijs

Studeren à la carte is not possible for this course.


Dhr. prof. dr. L.P.H.M. Buskens


Students with disabilities

The university is committed to supporting and accommodating students with disabilities as stated in the university protocol (especially pages 3-5). Students should contact Fenestra Disability Centre at least four weeks before the start of their courses to ensure that all necessary academic accommodations can be made in time conform the abovementioned protocol.

Academic Integrity

Students are expected to be familiar with Leiden University policies on plagiarism and academic integrity. Plagiarism will not be tolerated. If you submit any work with your name affixed to it, it is assumed to be your own work with all sources used properly indicated and documented in the text (with quotations and/or citations).