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International Negotiation



Objectives: 1. Explain concepts such as international negotiations, conflict negotiations, multilateral negotiations, EU negotiations. 2. Explain the main theories on negotiations and their relationship to wider international relations theory. 3. Explain negotiations in international organisations as a decision making tool. 4. Describe the key principles underpinning a successful negotiation or (conflict) mediation. 5. Have a better understanding of their own their skills and competencies in negotiations via simulations and role-plays. 6. Ameliorate their effectiveness in (international) negotiations. 7. Use tips and tricks for negotiation and mediation. 8. Explain cultural differences and be aware of the basics of intercultural communication. 9. Create strategies for negotiation processes. 10. Recognize bargaining tactics and respond to them. 11. Understand psychological processes in general and specific individual reactions to negotiation situations.

Content: One of the major tools in interstate decision-making are international diplomatic negotiation processes. Many of such negotiations take place in multilateral forums. The lecturer of this course will give participants an opportunity to look at the theoretical and practical aspects of conference diplomacy and decision-making in international governmental organizations. Students will study the literature on international negotiations, analyze real-life cases and practice and enhance their negotiation skills in simulation exercises. Among the main topics of this course are the dynamics of the negotiation process and the impact of different types of interests on international decision-making, the role of rules and procedures in diplomatic negotiations, the behavior of actors and the various levels of the negotiation process. The course will draw on the long-standing experience of the Clingendael Negotiations Team and the work of the Processes of International Negotiation (PIN) research network, based at Clingendael (

Methods of Instruction

Interactive lectures; Group assignments and discussions, including reflection in group on lessons learned; Multiple bilateral negotiation simulations; Multilateral negotiation simulations; Individual negotiation profile and self-assessment.

The course consists of four sessions, each lasting a full day. During each session several negotiation simulations will be conducted. With the help of self-assessments and group discussions, students will reflect on their own behavior and of the other negotiators.
Every week the students will receive literature, which will be related to the session of that week. Central to the teaching methodology is the conviction that reading about negotiation theory is better after experiencing similar negotiation processes. Connected to the literature and the session is an assignment. Other homework every week will be preparation for the negotiation simulation of the upcoming session. Per average every week will have about 125 pages of literature.

Study material

The materials will be available during the sessions for students to copy and will available digitally.


Examination for International Negotiation will consist of 6 components: attendance and participation, four assignments and one exam.


Monday 2 and 16 February and Monday 2 and 16 March, 9.00-17.00 hrs in A2.02 (Schouwburgstraat 2, The Hague)