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Structural Equation Models


Admission requirements

Master’s students with a solid background in intermediate statistics and methods of research.


Structural Equation Models (SEMs) are linear models with which the structure of the means and the covariances among a set of observed variables can be described. It is assumed that this structure arises from the pattern of interrelations among a set of latent variables and/or observed variables. SEMs can be used for confirmative factor analysis and for fitting “causal” models consisting of continuous and/or categorical observed and latent variables. Furthermore, multigroup analyses can also be performed. The parameters of SEMs can be estimated and tested by means of several computer programs, such as Lisrel, EQS, Mplus and AMOS.

_ Please bring your laptop (with EQS) to the course. _

Course objectives

This course focuses on translating substantial theories into SEMs. It offers students an introduction into the methodology of structural equation. Furthermore, students acquire basic skills in using the computer program EQS which is widely available.: They are taught how to use the program and how to interpret the analysis results. The applications presented and used in the course will come from a wide range of disciplines.


Structural Equation Models (2013-2014):

Mode of instruction

  • Six or seven four-hour lecture sessions with integrated computer labs.

Assessment method

Every week students will be supplied with a take-home exercise which will be discussed in class. Each students is also required to present a SEM analysis on a data set supplied by the lecturer or on one of their own choosing. Grades will be based on a take-home exam.


The course extensively uses Blackboard (

Reading list

Byrne, B.M. (2006). Structural Equation Modeling with EQS, Basic Concepts, Applications and Programming (2nd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage


Course enrolment

Students need to enrol for the course via uSis on the master’s introduction and course enrolment day that takes place at the start of each semester. Please, consult the master’s agenda Psychology.

Contact information

Prof. Dr. P.M. Kroonenberg
Child and Family Studies, Institute of Education and child Studies; Office: 4B27
Tel: +31(0)71 527 3446/3434