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Scientific Conduct


Progress in scientific knowledge is based on results of research which are objective and unambiguous. This sounds obvious, but reality is much more complicated. Researchers, as human beings, have to make difficult decisions all the time about their research methodologies, the treatment of data, the interpretation of the data, the conclusions drawn as related to a hypothesis, the relevance of the results, etc.
This involves a continuous process of judgements which may be of non-neutral value and include prejudices and wishful thinking. Scientific misconduct may be the result and has occasionally drawn major negative public attention to the research process. Awareness of subjectivity and temptations in scientific research is a first step in prevention, and leads to written and unwritten rules of good scientific conduct.


prof. dr. A.K. Raap


Master students Biomedical Sciences and Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences


Master students in Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences must have completed Research Project 1;


  • “On being a scientist”. Published by the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA 2.

  • “Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek” Dilemma’s en Verleidingen”, Uitgave door Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, 2000.

  • “Notitie Wetenschappelijke Integriteit. Over normen van wetenschappelijk onderzoek en een Landelijk Orgaan voor Wetenschappelijke Integriteit”. Uitgave Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, 2001.

  • The FASEB Journal • Editorial: Science fraud: from patchwork mouse to patchwork data


November 4—8, 2013, and April 22—25, 2014 (does not interfere with other BPS lectures, see roster for details).


Application via uSis.


  • You will become aware of subjective judgements in scientific research based on several research case histories.

  • You will be able to develope and define rules of good scientific conduct.


The course will be taught in Dutch or English. The course will be taught in English when foreign students participate in the course.